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IHRA Definition of Anti-Semitism

The rise of anti-Semitism must be addressed by governments and civil society alike. Working from a universal definition is critical in order to combat all forms of contemporary anti-Semitism.

The International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) determined that in order to begin to address the problem of anti-Semitism, there must be clarity about what anti-Semitism is. The following non-legally binding working definition of anti-Semitism was adopted by the alliance’s 34 member countries during its plenary session on May 26, 2016 in Bucharest:

“Anti-Semitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of anti-Semitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities.”

A common definition helps recognize when and how anti-Semitism is perpetuated, helps hold perpetrators accountable, leads to changes in negative behaviors and helps standardize educational materials to halt the spread of anti-Semitism.

Age-old anti-Jewish conspiracies and tropes are being repackaged in light of the enormous social and political stresses of our time and new anti-Semitic trends continue to emerge.

To guide IHRA in its work, the the inter-government organization developed a list of examples to highlight manifestations of contemporary anti-Semitism under the definition. Contemporary manifestations of anti-Semitism in public life, the media, schools, the workplace, and in the religious sphere could, taking into account the overall context, include, but are not limited to:

  • Calling for, aiding, or justifying the killing or harming of Jews in the name of a radical ideology or an extremist view of religion.
  • Making mendacious, dehumanizing, demonizing, or stereotypical allegations about Jews as such or the power of Jews as collective — such as, especially but not exclusively, the myth about a world Jewish conspiracy or of Jews controlling the media, economy, government or other societal institutions.
  • Accusing the Jews as a people, or Israel as a state, of inventing or exaggerating the Holocaust.
  • Denying the fact, scope, mechanisms (e.g. gas chambers) or intentionality of the genocide of the Jewish people at the hands of National Socialist Germany and its supporters and accomplices during World War II (the Holocaust).
  • Accusing Jews as a people of being responsible for real or imagined wrongdoing committed by a single Jewish person or group, or even for acts committed by non-Jews.
  • Accusing Jewish citizens of being more loyal to Israel, or to the alleged priorities of Jews worldwide, than to the interests of their own nations.
  • Denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination, e.g., by claiming that the existence of a State of Israel is a racist endeavor.
  • Applying double standards by requiring of it a behavior not expected or demanded of any other democratic nation.
  • Using the symbols and images associated with classic antisemitism (e.g., claims of Jews killing Jesus or blood libel) to characterize Israel or Israelis.
  • Drawing comparisons of contemporary Israeli policy to that of the Nazis.
  • Holding Jews collectively responsible for actions of the state of Israel.

The IHRA definition has become the internationally recognized standard for defining anti-Semitic behavior. The definition has been embraced and championed by leaders across the ideological, political and religious spectrums. Dozens of countries and hundreds of organizations, universities, sports teams, religious institutions, and municipalities have stood up to Jew-hatred in their communities by adopting the IHRA definition.

While more and more governments, institutions and organizations have begun to adopt the IHRA definition globally, the definition also serves as an important and powerful educational tool for teaching about, and ultimately preventing the hatred of Jewish people.

Learn More About the IHRA Definition By Watching The Video Below:

 

Countries Formally Accepting the IHRA Definition

  • Albania
  • Argentina
  • Austria
  • Bahrain
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Canada
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Kosovo
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Netherlands
  • Republic of Moldova
  • Republic of North Macedonia
  • Romania
  • Scotland
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • United States of America
  • Uruguay

Some of the other Entities Formally Accepting the IHRA Definition

  • Bal Harbour, FL
  • Chelsea Football Club
  • Church in Wales
  • Church of England
  • Church of Scotland
  • Conservative Party
  • European Parliament
  • European Youth Forum
  • French National Assembly
  • George Washington University-
    Student Association
  • Greater Manchester Combined Authority Wales
  • Greek Ministry of Education, Research
    and Religious Affairs
  • King’s College London
  • University of Buenos Aires
  • Argentine Football Association
  • Cambridgeshire County Council
  • Global Imams Council
  • The Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations
  • City of Miami
  • Kentucky
  • City of Vienna
  • Labour Party (England)
  • National Union of Students of the United Kingdom
  • National University of Cuyo
  • Organization of American States
  • Stanford University Student Association
  • The Liberal Democrats (Britain)
  • The London Assembly / City of London
  • United States Commission on Civil Rights
  • University of Bristol
  • University of California Santa Barbara Student Association
  • West Ham United
  • Western Washington University
  • Worcester, England
  • Borussia Dortmund FC
  • King Hamad Global Center for Peaceful Coexistance
  • University of Warwick
  • King Hamad Global Centre for Peaceful Coexistence
  • City of Paris
  • Province of Ontario
  • Greater Manchester Authority
  • Province of New Brunswick

IHRA WEBSITE

Our Movement's Pledge

The Combat Anti-Semitism Movement’s pledge draws upon the IHRA working definition of anti-Semitism and its list of specific behaviors used to discriminate against the Jewish people and the Jewish State of Israel.

READ THE FULL PLEDGE

SIGN THE PLEDGE

The targeting of Jews must be stopped. I pledge to help combat anti-Semitism.