The Growing Normalization of Holocaust Trivialization Worldwide in 2021-2022

Anti-vaccination pass protesters in Rome, Italy, July 27, 2021. Photo: The Associated Press / Riccardo De Luca.

January 5, 2022

Since the summer of 2021, as debates over Covid-19 pandemic-related health measures implemented by governments around the world grew more rancorous, the trivialization of the Holocaust (or the purposeful obfuscation of the distinctive nature and scope of the Nazi genocide of the Jews) has unfortunately become an all-too-common trend in the public sphere.

Crisscrossing the ideological and political spectrum, these trivialization incidents have included the wearing of Stars of David and mock concentration camp uniforms at protests, the performance of Nazi salutes at city council and school board meetings, the vandalization of World War II and Holocaust memorials, the likening of modern-day government officials to Nazi leaders, and the distribution of flyers propagating conspiracy theories about Jews, among other transgressions, all of which constitute manifestations of antisemitism, according to the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) Working Definition of Antisemitism.

The comparison of contemporary health policies to the systematic persecution and extermination of European Jews by the Nazi regime not only minimizes their suffering, but also disregards the unique horrors that Jews and other victims of the Nazis endured during the Holocaust.

The following is a list of Holocaust trivialization events that occurred in the year between July 2021 and July 2022 — 212 in total.

Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, June 27 – British actor and political activist Laurence Fox shared on image on social media of a Nazi swastika made out of rainbow flags, accompanied by the caption “Oh blessed and most holy month!” — referring to LGBT Pride Month. Read more.

Louisville, Kentucky, June 27 – At its biennial General Assembly, the Presbyterian Church-USA passed a resolution comparing Israel to Nazi Germany and accusing the Jewish state of practicing “apartheid.” Read more.

Amman, Jordan, June 23 – UNRWA employee Qusai Mansi posted a fake photo of a baby with an unidentifiable rash on its face, accompanied by a caption equating Zionism with Nazism. Read more.

London, England, United Kingdom, June 22 – Young Jewish children playing soccer were hissed at by their opponents to replicate the sound of the gas chambers used by the Nazis to exterminate Jews during the Holocaust. Read more.

Kassel, Germany, June 21 – A work displayed at the prestigious “Documenta” art show depicted a man with sidelocks often associated with Orthodox Jews, fangs, and bloodshot eyes, wearing a black hat with the SS insignia. Read more.

Centurion, South Africa, June 9 – In a radio interview, Reverend Frank Chikane, a moderator of the Commission of the Churches on International Affairs and the World Council of Churches, said, “Europe needs to get over the guilt of the killing of Jews, because it’s this guilt which is allowing Palestinians to be killed.” Read more.

Johannesburg, South Africa, June 9 – Madoda Sitshange, an independent consultant, compared Israel to the Nazis in an article published in the “analysis” section of The Sunday Independent newspaper. Read more.

Pendle, Lancashire, England, United Kingdom, June 9 – In a speech in which he called for the Palestinian flag to be raised over the local town hall, Labour Party council member Mohammed Iqbal said “many would remember what justification Hitler had for what he did to the Jews.” Read more.

Jerusalem, Israel, June 8 – At the Chamber of the Holocaust Museum on Mount Zion just outside the Old City, antisemitic graffiti reading “Zionists = Nazis” and “Zionists are responsible for the Holocaust” was found. Read more.

Minsk, Belarus, June 7 – In an interview on a state TV channel, Dr. Vadzim Hihin accused Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky of having a “passion for Nazism.” Read more.

Santiago, Chile, June 3 – Pablo Jofré Leal, an advisor to Chilean Minister of Health María Begoña Yarza, uploaded a video to Twitter in which he called for “eliminating” Zionism. “I dream of an international tribunal in the style of Nuremberg, but in Jerusalem,” he said. Read more.

Coventry, England, United Kingdom, May 31 – At an online event hosted by the Institute for Palestinian Studies, Warwick University researcher Virinder S. Kalra compared Zionism to Nazism and fascism. Read more.

Bell Ville, Cordoba, Argentina, May 18 – In a Twitter thread, Secretary General of the Argentine Socialist Workers Movement and Coordinator of the International Socialist League Alejandro Bodart said Israel is a “racist and genocidal” state and “Zionism=Nazism.” Read more.

Ramallah, Palestinian Authority, May 18 – Fayez Abbas, an “Israeli affairs expert” for the official Palestinian Authority TV channel, described Israeli security measures in Jerusalem as “the expression of Israeli Nazi-like ideology,” and claimed that “Israeli leaders are prized students of Goebbels, the minister of propaganda in the period of Nazi Germany.”

Also, senior PA official Jibril Rajoub said Israeli prisons were the “identical copies of Auschwitz and the death camps.” Read more.

Amman, Jordan, May 17 – In an article published in the Al Ra’i newspaper, Raja Talab called Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett “the Nazi wearing a kippah.” Read more.

London, England, United Kingdom, May 15 – Organized by the Palestinian Solidarity Campaign (PSC), an anti-Israel rally featured a number of antisemitic signs and slogans, including “Well done Isr*el, Hitler would be proud.” Read more.

Amman, Jordan, May 12 – Multiple articles published in the Al Ra’i newspaper in recent weeks amid rising tensions surrounding the Temple Mount in Jerusalem featured Holocaust denial and propagated antisemitic libels. Read more.

Markt Schwaben, Germany, May 3 – Antisemitic flyers were discovered in mailboxes around the town of Markt Schwaben, near Munich. The flyers included calls to “liquidate” all Jews worldwide by the end of 2023 and linked Jews to a number of conspiracy theories. Read more.

Moscow, Russia, May 3 – Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov accused the State of Israel of supporting the “neo-Nazism of Ukraine,” which has served as a false pretense for Russia’s ongoing invasion of Ukraine. Read more.

Moscow, Russia, May 2 – In a television interview, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov defended Moscow’s claim that it was “de-Nazifying” Ukraine, and asserted that late GermanNazi leader Adolf Hitler “had Jewish blood.” He went on to say that “some of the worst antisemites are Jews.” Read more.

New South Wales, Victoria, Australia, April 28 – A image published on Facebook of New South Wales Treasurer Josh Frydenberg, the state’s first Jewish treasurer, depicted him in an SS uniform with the caption “Bogan’s Heroes.” Read more.

Orillia, Ontario, Canada, April 27 – In a window of the Bowen Co. Antiques business, a Nazi flag was draped over a bloodied mannequin, with a Tim Hortons coffee cup placed inside a military water bottle carrier. Read more.

The display at Bowen Co. Antiques, in Orillia, Ontario.


Ramallah, Palestinian Authority, April 27 – Ahead of Yom HaShoah, Israel’s Holocaust Remembrance Day, the Palestinian Authority accused Israel of perpetrating a “Holocaust anew against the Palestinians.” Read more.

Swissvale, Pennsylvania, United States, April 27 – During a Swissvale Borough public meeting, Fire Chief Clyde Wilhelm made a comment about Covid-19 vaccines — “Pandemic is over and you’re asking us to show you our papers, that’s reminiscent of something that happened a long time ago that didn’t turn out really well” — that Councilmember Abigail Salisbury said was antisemitic and directed at her. Read more.

Victoria, Australia, April 21 – An image published by Gumshoe News, an outlet known for promoting conspiracy theories related to the Holocaust, vaccines, and the 9/11 attacks, depicted Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison in Nazi uniform, along with the slogan “no jab, no job.” Read more.

Landshut, Germany, April 20 – A sticker discovered in the city’s Old Town area compared Russians in Europe today to European Jews during the Holocaust. Read more.

Long Beach, California, April 19 – At a Goodwill store, a patron noticed a pair of leggings that had images from the 1993 Holocaust film Schindler’s List on them. Read more.

California, United States, April 16 – Actor Mel Gibson made a joke in his new film “Father Stu” that a boxer joining the priesthood was “like Hitler asking to join the ADL.” Read more.

Nashville, Tennessee, United States, April 14 – Tennessee State Senator Frank Niceley portrayed Nazi leader Adolf Hitler’s life as a “rags to riches” story, sayin Hitler went from being homeless to “in history books.” Read more.

Flanders, Belgium, April 7 – In a “parody” of Schindler’s List, the government-owned VRT television station mocked the film by playing a dub of the characters experiencing a cookie shortage. Read more.

South Africa, April 7 – A self-proclaimed human rights group called “Africa4Palestine” posted a meme that compared Israel to Nazi Germany. Read more.

The meme that was posted in the “Africa4Palestine” Facebook group.


Sydney, Australia, March 31 – Former Lord Mayor of Sydney and former Chief Commissioner of the Greater Sydney Commission Lucy Turnbull tweeted a comparison of recent floods in Australia to the Kristallnacht pogrom, “but instead of broken glass of sacked Jewish owned property, and burned books in Germany 1938, we have this. Destruction of treasured things, lives, homes smashed by storms, floods.” Read more.

Trier, Germany, March 31 – A former innkeeper who advertised and sold apple strudel under the label “Original Hitler’s apple strudel/Sieg Heil/8.88 euros” received a five-month suspended prison sentence and a fine of 800 euros that must be paid to a non-profit organization. Read more.

Kilmarnock, Scotland, United Kingdom, March 30 – Lawyer Neil McPherson was fined for comparing the Scottish city of Paisley to the Auschwitz concentration camp. Read more.

Columbus, Ohio, United States, March 25 – In an interview with News 5 Cleveland, Ohio State Representative Sarah Fowler Arthur suggested it was appropriate to teach about the Holocaust from the perspective of the Nazis. Read more.

Moscow, Russia, March 25 – Russian President Vladimir Putin compared Western “cancel culture” to the burning of books by the Nazis in the 1930s. Read more.

Moscow, Russia, March 16 – Russian President Vladimir Putin compared Western sanctions on Russia over its invasion of Ukraine to the “antisemitic pogroms” perpetrated by the Nazis against European Jews during the Holocaust. Read more.

Dakar, Senegal, March 12 – Nkosi Zwelivelile “Mandla” Mandela, a South African Parliament member and a grandson of Nelson Mandela, blamed the Russian invasion of Ukraine on “apartheid Israel’s dogs of war.” Read more.

Moscow, Russia, March 10 – Comparing Russians in Europe today with the Jews of Berlin during the Holocaust, the Russian band known as “Leningrad” released a music video depicting band members wearing Stars of David and claiming they were the new Jews that Europe “wants to burn in the ovens.” Read more.

Bavaria, Germany, March 6 – A traveling art exhibition called “Gallery of Horrors” displayed in three cities across the southeastern German state of Bavaria — Barding, Ingolstadt and Landshut — featured misinformation about Covid-19 and conflated pandemic-related health measures with the Holocaust using images of the Auschwitz death camp. Read more.

Aberdeen, Hong Kong, March 4 – The Chinese government-owned newspaper Wen Wei Po promotes and disseminates false information backing Russia’s declared aim to “denazify” Ukraine. Read more.

Jerusalem, Israel, March 4 – Yad Vashem Chairman Dani Dayan expressed concern over the use of Holocaust-related rhetoric in discourse about the ongoing Russian invasion of Ukraine. Read more.

Moscow, Russia, March 3 – Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov compared the US government to Nazi Germany by equating the “Americans” with “Hitler.” Read more.

Knetzgau, Germany, March 2 – The words “Unvaccinated today = Jews 1935” were spray-painted on a highway underpass. Read more.

Louisville, Kentucky, United States, March 2 – During a debate over abortion legislation, Kentucky State Representative Danny Bentley falsely claimed that the abortion pill named RU-486 (Mifepristone) was developed during World War II by a Jew and was called Zyklon B. Read more.

Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania, United States, March 1 – Elizabethtown Area School Board member Danielle Lindemuth said students refusing to take the Covid-19 vaccine were “putting a little star on their chest.” Read more.

Ramallah, Palestinian Authority, February 26 – Omar Hilmi Al-Ghoul, a regular columnist for the official Palestinian Authority (PA) daily Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, claimed Israel orchestrating a “Hitleresque holocaust” against Arabs. Read more.

Mantua, Italy, February 25 – Anti-vaccine activists said they would form a soccer team of unvaccinated players, name it the “New Jews,” and use striped uniforms and yellow Stars of David. Read more.

Isles of Scilly, England, United Kingdom, February 24 – Independent Councilor Toby Tobin-Dougan compared the sanitary conditions on the island of St. Martin’s to the Nazi German concentration camps of Bergen-Belsen and Dachau, citing a “lack of waste bins and public toilets.” Read more.

Berlin, Germany, February 24 – On her Twitter account, Irene Tuzi, a lecturer at Humboldt University of Berlin, compared former Israeli Prime Benjamin Netanyahu to Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and referred to a “genocide of the Jews against the Palestinians” on International Holocaust Remembrance Day. Read more.

Moscow, Russia, February 24 – Russian President Vladimir Putin described the “denazification” of Ukraine as an aim of Russia’s invasion of the neighboring county, whose president, Volodymyr Zelensky, is Jewish and the grandson of Holocaust survivors. Read more.

February 22 – The Roblox collaborative computer gaming platform removed a virtual Nazi concentration camp including gas chambers users could operate. Roblox said it had “zero tolerance for content and behaviors that promote or glorify antisemitism,” and banned the game’s creators. Read more.

Hokitika, New Zealand, February 21 – At anti-vaccine mandate demonstrations, protestors used Holocaust comparisons, wore yellow Stars of David, spray-painted a swastika on a statue, referred to certain government officials as Nazis, and called Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern “Jewcinda.” Read more.

February 17 – Tesla CEO Elon Musk likened Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to Adolf Hitler, by tweeting a picture of the Nazi leader with the caption “Stop comparing me to Justin Trudeau. I had a budget.”

Trudeau had previously drawn criticism from B’nai B’rith Canada for saying “Conservative Party members can stand with people who wave swastikas” during a parliamentary discussion on protests against Covid-19 pandemic-related health measures. Read more.

Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, February 16 – Fredericton Mayor Kate Rogers apologized for initially describing a demonstration where protesters displayed antisemitic and white supremacist symbols as “peaceful.” Read more.

Atlanta, Georgia, United States, February 15 – Ex-Senator and current Georgia gubernatorial candidate David Perdue compared the U.S. during the Covid-19 pandemic to Nazi Germany and other dictatorial regimes. Read more.

Manchester, England, United Kingdom, February 14 – Director of StandWithUs UK Charlotte Korchak was heckled on the University of Manchester campus by a group of 12 anti-Israel protestors, who called her “worse than Hitler.” Read more.

Washington D.C., United States, February 9 – During a One America News Network interview, U.S. Congresswoman Marjorie Taylor Greene claimed House Speaker Nancy Pelosi had a “Gazpacho police” spying on Congress members (mistaking the Spanish cold soup called “Gazpacho” with the Nazi secret police force known as the “Gestapo”). Read more.

North York, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, February 8 – A teacher at Ledbury Park Elementary and Middle School has been put on administrative leave after comparing Covid-19 vaccine mandates to the Holocaust-era yellow Stars of David that the Nazis forced Jews to wear. Read more.

London, United Kingdom, February 2 – Piers Corbyn, leader of the “Let London Live” political party, posted a swastika on his Facebook account after participating as a speaker at an anti-vaccine rally. Corbyn has repeatedly compared mask and vaccine mandates to the Holocaust. Read more.

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, February 2 – At a “Freedom Convoy” protest in the Canadian capital, Nazi flags were carried by some in the crowd. Read more.

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, February 1 – Visiting Political Science lecturer Vasili Rukhadze stated during a class at the University of Pittsburgh that wearing masks was like “being gassed in Auschwitz.” Read more.

London, United Kingdom, February 1 – According to the Independent Office for Police Conduct (IOPC) report, a number of police officers at the Charing Cross police station had sent racist and sexist messages, including one comparing the six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust to flies. One of the comments included an officer comparing the 6 million Jewish deaths to flies. Read more.

London, United Kingdom, February 1 – Unite Group, the largest student accommodation company in the UK, officially suspended Communications Officer Nick West over multiple antisemitic comments, the latest being a Facebook rant against Jewish MP Dame Margaret Hodge for pushing her “Zionist agenda” and weaponizing the Holocaust for her support of Israel. Read more.

Southwark, London, United Kingdom, February 1 – An antisemitic vandalism incident occurred on Borough High Street in the Southwark borough of London, featuring Stars of David and swastikas, joined by anti-Israel quotes such as “free Plestine [sic] or else.” Read more.

The antisemitic graffiti on Borough High Street in London, England.


Toronto, Ontario, Canada, February 1 – Self-proclaimed “Islamist-Human Rights Defender” Firas al-Najim posted a video on TikTok with the caption “#StopPalestinianHolocaust,” and claimed Zionists were using International Holocaust Remembrance Day to spread pro-Israel propaganda. Read more.

New York, New York, United States, February 1 – During an airing of “The View,” Whoopi Goldberg claimed that the Holocaust wasn’t about race and that it was “white on white.” Read more.

Washington D.C., United States, January 31 – US Congressman Thomas Massie (R-KY) tweeted, “You mustn’t question Fauci, for he is science” (in reference to Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Dr. Anthony Fauci), with an image and quote by American neo-Nazi Kevin Alfred Strom. Massie had previously compared health measures during the ongoing pandemic to Nazi Germany and the Holocaust. Read more.

Munich, Germany, January 29 – Leaflets were found at a residential building called ​​”Olympiadorf,” comparing current Covid-19 health measures to Nazi policies, referencing “a technological propaganda mechanism” that “Goebbels could only dream of.” Read more.

Silver Spring, Maryland, United States, January 27 – Despite a county law requiring restaurant patrons to wear a mask indoors while not eating, two anti-mask customers attempted to dine at Holy Chow! (a kosher Chinese restaurant) and refused to comply when employees asked them to wear masks. “Segregation was legal. Jim Crow was legal. The Holocaust was legal,” they said. Read more.

United States, January 27 – In its revival season, the latest episode of “Sex and the City” featured a character “joking” that the “Holocaust was hoax,” after asking whether the dinner party was a “Jewish dinner.” Read more.

Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, January 27 – A teacher at Tec de Monterrey Ana Luisa Nevárez dressed up as Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and had her students reenact the shooting of Jews during the Holocaust with a water gun. She also posed with a Hitler blow-up doll and asked her students to give Nazi salutes. The school promptly fired her and apologized to the community for the incident. Read more.

Ana Luisa Nevárez is seen posing with an Adolf Hitler blow-up doll.


Washington D.C., United States, January 23 – American environmental lawyer Robert F. Kennedy Jr. compared vaccine mandates to the Holocaust at a rally on the National Mall. He stated, “Even in Hitler’s Germany…you could hide in the attic like Anne Frank did.” Read more.

Hudson, Ohio, United States, January 23 – A crowd of “Christian veterans” demonstrating outside the home of State Representative Casey Weinstein — who is Jewish — compared vaccine mandates to “Germany in World War II.” Read more.

Mexico City, Mexico, January 21 – A teacher at CESSA University, Irene García Méndez, mocked Holocaust victims in a Zoom class by comparing Jews to pizzas. The university promptly fired ​​Méndez and apologized to students for the incident. Read more.

United States, January 21 – During an interview with anti-vaxxer Dr. Robert Malone, Fox News host Tucker Carlson made a comment comparing the medical experiments Nazi Germany conducted with vaccine mandates, declaring them as immoral and unethical. Read more.

New York, New York, United States, January 20 – After Israeli Ambassador to the UN Gilad Erdan presented a resolution to combat Holocaust denial, Iran’s UN representative accused Israel of using Jewish suffering to justify its actions against neighboring Middle Eastern countries. Read more.

Washington D.C., United States, January 20 – Congresswoman Marjorie Taylor Greene compared vaccine mandates to “Nazi health passes” and the Holocaust. Read more.

Bury, England, United Kingdom, January 19 – “No COVID Pass” flyers with Nazi swastikas were plastered on traffic lights on Peel Way. Read more.

A sign put up in Bury, England.


Ajax, Ontario, Canada, January 19 – Former Mayor of Ajax Steve Parish expressed support for renaming a street after Hans Langsdorff, a Nazi naval officer. Read more.

South Yarmouth, Massachusetts, United States, January 18 – After World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) submitted a request to trademark the name “Gunther Stark,” it emerged that this was the name of a well-known Nazi. Read more.

Florida, United States, January 15 – Agriculture Commissioner of Florida Nikki Fried compared Governor Ron DeSantis with Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, claiming he did not want to “govern with the people, he’s trying to govern over the people.” Read more.

Geraldine, South Canterbury, New Zealand, January 14 – Q Foods restaurant in Geraldine posted a flyer on their front door that denounced the New Zealand government as fascist for requiring vaccine passes at restaurants, mockingly suggesting that if a potential customer was not vaccinated, wearing a “yellow star” would more quickly identify whether they could be served or not.  Read more.

Petersburg, Alaska, United States, January 13 – Petersburg police officer Johnny Duane Pickle posted on social media a photo of his son wearing a mock Hitler mustache with the caption, “Just showed this to my son. He said that would be his dream come true. Got to raise them riech.” Read more.

Santa Monica, California, United States, January 13 – In the Santa Monica school district, flyers blaming Jews for the anti-vaxx movement appeared with a red and green Star of David, the word “anti-vaxxer” inside the Star of David, and Kentucky-based phone number. Read more.

Compiègne, France, January 12 – Anti-vaccine pass protester Eloi Fauvergue, who targeted Jewish lawmakers with a “Qui?” sign (literally “who” in French, but also a code word for Jews) including horns added to the “Q,” was sentenced to three months in prison for the offense of “public provocation to hatred or violence.” Read more.

Washington, DC, United States, January 12 – Ohio Congressman Warren Davidson tweeted an image of a Nazi-era health pass and compared it to Washington DC’s vaccine mandate, saying, “This has been done before #DoNotComply.” Read more.

Zotzenbach, Germany, January 12 – A sign pasted on a church’s outdoor information board said, “No access for Jews and no vaccinated.” The church’s pastor condemned the incident. Read more.

New York, New York, United States, January 11 – New York City Council member Vickie Paladino publicly apologized for her comment during an interview on local news channel NY1 that she did not “need to show you my papers, this is not Nazi Germany.” Read more.

Scotland, United Kingdom, January 11 – Online forums (i.e. Telegram) across Scotland have continued to draw white supremacists and neo-Nazis, with the widespread dissemination of violent and antisemitic messaging in connection with pandemic-related health measures. Read more.

Beit Shemesh, Israel, January 9 – A McDonald’s customer posted a video on TikTok comparing the restaurant’s kiosk asking him for his vaccination status to the anti-Jewish policies of Nazi Germany. He responded that he did not have the “Green Pass” and the kiosk automatically canceled his order, leading him to say, “Sounds like Nazi Germany — that’s where we’re at.” Read more.

Munich, Germany, January 7 – Police arrested a man who was among a group of 20 people who were walking toward the city’s Jewish community center after a protest against pandemic-related health measures. The group included convicted neo-Nazi terrorist Karl-Heinz Statzberger, who took part in an attempted bombing of the JCC in 2003. Read more.

Northampton, Massachusetts, United States, January 7 – During an online Board of Health meeting discussion on a vaccine mandate for restaurants and bars in the city, multiple participants made offensive gestures on camera and used antisemitic language, including implying that the board members were “unelected, rich Jewish doctors” who would “put people in camps.” Read more.

Noblesville, Indiana, United States, January 5 – Indiana State Senator Scott Baldwin stated in a committee meeting that school teachers should teach history objectively, without taking a position on Nazism, so students could “formulate their own viewpoints.” Read more.

Frisco, Texas, United States, January 5 – Ahead of starting a two-month prison term for her actions at the January 2021 U.S. Capitol riot, realtor Jenna Ryan told an interviewer she was being treated like the “Jews in Germany.” Read more.

Wesel, Germany, January 5 – A Telegram group based in Wesel reappeared, with members exchanging conspiracy theories blaming Jews for the Covid-19 pandemic and openly denying the Holocaust, which is illegal in Germany. Read more.

Bucharest, Romania, January 4 – Reacting to the Romanian Parliament’s vote in favor of mandatory education on the Holocaust and Jewish history in schools, the right-wing nationalist Alliance for the Union of Romanians party declared this would “undermine the quality of education in Romania.” Read more.

United States, January 4 – TikTok comedian Carollynn Xavier — “@carollynn_thechristian” — made a video with her head shaved with the comment “first day at an unvaccinated camp.” She was condemned by Holocaust survivor Gidon Lev, who was imprisoned at Theresienstadt during World War II. Read more.

Vienna, Austria, January 4 – The Austrian Jewish Student Union sued the head of the far-right FPÖ party, Herbert Kickl, over alleged antisemitic comments he made in an interview in which he downplayed Holocaust trivialization at protests against Covid-19 health measures. Read more.

Jerusalem, Israel, December 26 — Knesset member Gadi Yevarkan was forcibly removed from a hearing after comparing the pandemic restrictions in Israel to the Holocaust, yelling, “All that’s missing is concentration camps.” Read more.

Greifswald, Germany, December 25 — On the side of a university hospital, the phrase “The Jew is Unvaccinated!” — spray-painted in three-foot tall letters — was discovered early on Christmas morning. Read more.

Brussels, Belgium, December 24 – Near the Israeli Diplomatic Mission to Belgium in the Brussels commune of Uccle, two vandalizations in the same neighborhood took place in a single week. In the first, “Juif = Nazi” was spray-painted on a sidewalk, and in the second, “Ashkenazi axe Nazi” was spray-painted on a wall. Read more.

Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, England, United Kingdom, December 24 – Palestinian academic and author Shahd Abusalama defended a student who made a poster that said “Stop the Palestinian Holocaust.” The university made a statement saying it had adopted the IHRA Working Definition of Antisemitism in February 2021 and had launched an investigation into incident. Read more.

Rye, New York, United States, December 23 – A resident of the city and member of the Rye Facebook community group posted an image of a yellow Star of David in the group, which was promptly taken down by the administrators of the group, to protest vaccine rules. The Anti-Defamation League and City of Rye publicly condemned the incident. Read more.

Amberg, Germany, December 22 – Comparing pandemic restrictions with Holocaust victims, a letter saying “It always starts with exclusion” and cemetery candles were placed near the stumbling blocks of Fanny and Karl Haymann, both murdered during the Holocaust. Read more.

Los Angeles, California, United States, December 21 – An antisemitic poster, combining an “A” and a “V” to create a Star of David with the description “anti-vaxx,” appeared in the Fairfax neighborhood. Flyers were also found in nearby cities that linked the US government and the pandemic to a global Jewish conspiracy. Read more.

Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, December 21 – Participants in an anti-vaccine rally wore and held signs with Stars of David on them, comparing vaccine campaigns to the Nazi persecution of Jews. Read more.

Washington, D.C., United States, December 20 – Elementary school children were told to reenact horrific scenes from the Holocaust during class. When the children asked their teacher why the Germans killed Jews, she told them that it was because “Jews ruined Christmas.” Read more.

Ukraine, December 20 – An online shopping website was selling a mock Lacoste sweatshirt with the word “Holocoste.” After Project Kesher sent a formal complaint, the merchandise was removed in two hours. Read more.

Freiburg, Germany, December 20 – Next to the Holocaust memorial at the city’s Old Synagogue, an anti-vaccination sign with the phrase “Not Again” appeared. Read more.

Emerson College, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, December 17 – A professor asked a student to speak in German and when the student refused, he gave a Nazi salute toward her and other Jewish students in the class. This professor has also been reported for similar behavior prior to this incident. Read more.

Bavaria, Germany, December 16 – Since the start of December, 15 antisemitic cases had been reported throughout the region. Most cases were posters with antisemitic slogans or images and people shouting antisemitic statements in public. Read more.

Westpark, Dortmund, Germany, December 15 – Cardboard signs with antisemitic slogans, blaming the Jews for restrictive pandemic measures, appeared at the memorial site for a Jewish cemetery that was located there prior to WWII. Read more.

Warsaw, Poland, December 15 – Poland’s prime minister and the Auschwitz Memorial condemned the use of a banner that read “Vaccination sets you free” at an anti-vaccine rally in downtown Warsaw. Read more.

London, England, United Kingdom, December 13 – MP Marcus Fysh compared Covid-19 health measures to Nazi policies, saying he would no part in voting for them, particularly vaccine passes. Read more.

Suresnes, France, December 13 – A WWII memorial honoring French soldiers and Resistance fighters was vandalized with “anti (vaccine) pass” graffiti. Read more.

The graffiti in Suresnes, France.


Worcester, Massachusetts, United States, December 10 – A Worcester firefighter posted an image of U.S. President Joe Biden as Adolf Hitler on his personal Instagram account, with Nazi symbols and images both in the foreground and background of the picture. Read more.

North Shropshire, England, United Kingdom, December 7 – A political candidate Helen Morgan compared Home Secretary Priti Patel to Joseph Mengele, the Auschwitz doctor who experimented on Jewish prisoners, after he made a statement about preventing small boats from docking in the UK. Read more.

Brussels, Belgium, December 6 – In reaction to protesters using yellow Stars of David during a rally against the vaccine campaign, European Jewish Association (EJA) Chairman Rabbi Menachem Margolin expressed outrage over the comparison was between taking a vaccine for public health and the “systematic murder of six-million Jews.” Read more.

United States, November 30Fox Nation host Lara Logan compared NIAID Director Anthony Fauci to Nazi doctor Joseph Mengele, who experimented on Jewish concentration camp prisoners, in his handling of the Covid-19 pandemic. She likened those who received vaccinations to Jews Mengele experimented on at Auschwitz. Read more.

Manchester, England, United Kingdom, November 28 – Soccer pundit Carlton Cole apologized for his statement directed at West Ham that it would face a “Holocaust” if it did not play well in a Premier League match against rival Manchester City. Read more.

Torino, Italy, November 26 – The leader of the anti-vaccine pass movement in the city of Turin, Marco Liccione, posted on Facebook that people who refused to get the shot were like Jews in Nazi Germany and subject to the same discrimination. Read more.

Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, November 26 – Stickers with Holocaust symbols and images of Hitler were found around the city, comparing vaccines to Nazi policies targeting Jews. The  anti-vaccine group behind the stickers likened itself to the anti-Nazi White Rose resistance movement. Read more.

One of the stickers that appeared in Melbourne, Australia.


Vienna, Austria, November 22 – 40,000 people participated in an anti-lockdown and anti-vaccine protests, with many wearing yellow Stars of David. Read more.

Lissone, Italy, November 22 – An Italian lawmaker explicitly against vaccine mandates, Fabio Meroni, referred to Holocaust survivor Liliana Segre, who had expressed support for the vaccine campaign, by the number that was tattooed on her forearm at Auschwitz. Read more.

Riverdale, Bronx, New York, United States, November 15 – Protesters against vaccine mandates gathered outside the house of Bronx Assemblyman Jeffrey Dinowitz, who is Jewish, holding signs with swastikas and yellow Stars of David. Read more.

Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, November 13 – Protesters against the vaccine campaign compared government officials to Nazis and called for violence against them at rallies. Read more.

Kansas City, Kansas, United States, November 13 – Anti-vaccine community members compared vaccine mandates to Nazi Germany at City Hall hearings and wore yellow Stars of David. Read more.

Washington, DC, United States, November 3 – Congresswoman Marjorie Taylor Greene compared U.S. pandemic-related health measures to those implemented by Nazi Germany against the Jews, including saying vaccine mandates for lawmakers were reminiscent of the yellow Stars of David worn by Jews during the Holocaust. Read more.

Munich, Germany, November 3 – Large graffiti reading “The Jew of 2021 is the Unvaccinated” appeared in the Neuhausen borough. Read more.

Victoria, Australia, November 2 – MP Bernie Finn compared Victoria Premier Daniel Andrews to Hitler and Covid-19 restrictions to WWII. Read more.

United States, November 2 – TV personality Ramona Singer endorsed a video online (produced by Robert F. Kennedy) that compared vaccine mandates to Nazi eugenic policies, claiming people were being tested on with the vaccines like prisoners in concentration camps. Read more.

Novara, Italy, November 1 – Protesters against the vaccine pass dressed up as concentration camp inmates and some also drew numbers on their arms. Read more.

Protesters in Novara, Italy, dress up as Nazi concentration camp inmates.


Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, November 1 – An anti-vaccine protester dressed up in a mock concentration camp uniform and walked around major intersections in the city. Read more.

Kansas, United States, October 31 – Kansas State Representative Brenda Landwehr compared the state’s mask mandates to the persecution of Jews in Nazi Germany. Read more.

Starkville, Mississippi, United States, October 28 – Mississippi State University Jewish students expressed serious concern that anti-vaccine protests featured Nazi imagery, including the university’s president, Mark Keenum, being depicted with a Hitler mustache. Read more.

Plainfield, Connecticut, United States, October 26 – State Representative Anne Dauphinais, in great detail, claimed Covid-19 precautions were akin to Nazi policies. Read more.

Kozani, Greece, October 24 – During a city council meeting, a member made a comparison between the circular economic system and Auschwitz. The speaker was asked to leave and the council condemned the statement. Read more.

Red Bluff, California, United States, October 22 – A teacher at a local middle school posted a video on social media with her wearing a yellow Star of David while condemning the vaccine mandate at her school. Read more.

Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, October 21 – A number of graffiti vandalizations took place around the country, particularly in Melbourne, where the phrase “Vaxx macht frei,” accompanied by a swastika, were used. Read more.

The graffiti in Melbourne, Australia.


United States, October 17 – A vocal supporter of Bernie Sanders and Black Lives Matter, Shaun King, stated on social media that people only cared about the Holocaust because the victims were European. Read more.

Georgia, United States, October 14 – U.S. Senate candidate Herschel Walker canceled a fundraiser that was to have been hosted by film producer Bettina Sofia Viviano-Langlais, whose Twitter account displayed an image of a swastika made of syringes. Read more.

South Windsor, Connecticut, United States, October 12 – Town Council candidate Adam Wood withdrew from the election race over antisemitic, racist, misogynistic, and pornographic Instagram posts he published were discovered. Read more.

Hartford, Connecticut, United States, October 12 – State Representative Anne Dauphinais defended her statements against Governor Ned Lamont that compared his Covid-19 measures to Hitler. Read more.

Australia, October 12 – Anti-vaccine blogger Sarah Mills posted images of her and her children dressed up with yellow Stars of David and concentration camp uniforms, along with the quote, “history is repeating itself.” Read more.

Mequon-Thiensville, Wisconsin, United States, October 11 – A candidate in the School Board election, Kris Kittell, reshared a provocative image on social media comparing the government’s Covid-19 response to Nazi Germany. Read more.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada, October 7 – University of Toronto Professor Mohammad Fadel set his Twitter profile picture to an image of a Jewish member of Canada’s Tax Court, comparing him to a Nazi. Read more.

Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, October 4 – Protesters at a small anti-vaccine rally flew a large swastika (made up of syringes) flag. Read more.

A Nazi swastika made of syringes is displayed at an anti-vaccine protest, in Salt Lake City, Utah. Photo: Bri Bright.


Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, September 30 – At anti-lockdown protests, many antisemitic signs and banners appeared, including some with the word “Qui?” (literally “who” in French, but also a code word for Jews) and “Jew jab kills.” Read more.

The Hague, Netherlands, September 27 – Yellow Stars of David and antisemitic banners, one saying “Have they died for nothing?” next to Jewish symbols, appeared at an anti-vaccine pass protest. Read more.

Pembroke, Massachusetts, United States, September 26 – Selectman ​​Dan Trabucco compared his interview questions with a diversity committee to as if he was in Nazi Germany. He late defended his statements as “historical fact,” even comparing his interview with “genocide.” Read more.

Anchorage, Alaska, United States, September 25 – Alaskan State Representative David Eastman compared a speech by U.S President Joe Biden to Adolf Hitler and included a link to a known antisemitic website that denies the Holocaust. Read more.

The Hague, Netherlands, September 24 – MP Thierry Baudet stated that Jews could claim all of WWII, saying “the war is not yours, it belongs to all of us,” and stood by his comments that those who chose not to be vaccinated were persecuted like Jews in Nazi Germany. Read more.

Richmond, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, September 23 – An IKEA store was vandalized with the graffiti “No Jew jab for Oz,” in opposition to the vaccine campaign. Read more.

The vandalized IKEA store in Richmond, Australia.


Morris County, New Jersey, United States, September 23 – Two representatives of the LaRouche organization set up a table in Rockaway Borough interacting with the public and displaying a sign reading, “Green Energy…More Efficient than Auschwitz.” The windmills were depicted with swastikas. Read more.

Oregon City, Oregon, United States, September 22 – A Clackamas County commissioner compared vaccine requirements to Nazi Germany forcing Jews to wear yellow Stars of David in a meme on his Facebook page. Read more.

Worcester, Massachusetts, United States, September 21 – After the Worcester police union posted an image of Mayor Joseph Petty with a Hitler mustache on its Facebook page, the leader of the police union who is running against Petty issued a formal apology. Read more.

Ottawa Valley, Ontario, Canada, September 20 – Green Party candidate Michael LaRiviere withdrew from the election race following his controversial statements comparing the Covid-19 vaccine passports to Nazi Germany tattooing Jewish concentration camp prisoners. Read more.

Newcastle, England, United Kingdom, September 19 – Freeman Hospital in Newcastle was vandalized with swastikas. Read more.

Worthington, Ohio, United States, September 15 – At a Schools Community board meeting, a person in the crowd made a Nazi gesture after the leadership asked everyone to wear their masks for the meeting recess. Read more.

Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, September 14 – A local brewery denied services to anti-vaccine protesters who destroyed the community’s Every Child Matters memorial. The protesters called the brewery owners “Nazis” and said they were treating them like Jews during the Holocaust, in addition to more coarse antisemitic language. Read more.

Phoenix, Arizona, United States, September 13 – Arizona State Senator Kelly Townsend compared people who support vaccines to Nazis and then told Jewish groups that protested her statement to “learn your history.” She also tweeted a swastika made up of needles. Read more.

Warsaw, Poland, September 13 – Antisemitic books alleging Jews in Poland today were corrupting the country and comparing vaccine mandates to the Holocaust were sold outside a church, the “Temple of Divine Providence,” after mass in Warsaw. Read more.

Urk, Netherlands, September 10 – A group of men dressed up as SS officers for a rally against Covid-19 health measures. After the protest, the men apologized for their behavior and how it was offensive to Jews. Read more.

Amsterdam, Netherlands, September 7 – The mayor of Amsterdam expressed her “horror” when she saw protesters against Covid-19 health measures wearing yellow Stars of David in Dam Square. Read more.

Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, September 5 – Protesters displayed signs comparing these Covid-19 restrictions to the Holocaust. Read more.

Staten Island, New York, United States, September 5 – A number of anti-vaccine mandate protesters wore yellow Stars of David with the words, “Not Vaccinated,” on their clothes. Read more.

Crocq, France, September 3 – Two posters were hung outside the Corcq school calling for the community to save their children from the vaccine mandates like Jewish children who needed to be saved from the Nazis. Read more.

Sainte-Feyre (Creuse), France, September 1 – Antisemitic and anti-vaccination graffiti appeared on a wall close to a main road, stating that Jews were behind a worldwide billionaire conspiracy. Read more.

New York, New York, United States, September 1 – A group of men handed out antisemitic propaganda on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan. Read more.

Antisemitic propaganda is seen being distributed in New York City.


Washington, DC, United States, August 28 – Kentucky Representative Thomas Massie compared the public health measures meant to curb the Covid-19 pandemic to the Holocaust by tweeting a picture of a number tattoo on his wrist. Read more.

Honolulu, Hawaii, United States, August 26 – Lieutenant Governor Josh Green was subject to an antisemitic campaign, which included a banner that read “JEW” alongside a Star of David, outside his home in opposition to mask mandates and Covid-19 vaccines. Read more.

Cheshire, Connecticut, United States, August 26 – Parents against the state-wide mask mandate for children in school classrooms interrupted a roundtable school district meeting, yelling statements such as, “What concentration camp are you sending them to?” Read more.

Washington, DC, United States, August 25 – Congressman Randy Weber compared Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi to the Gestapo secret police under Nazi Germany during a press conference held by the House Freedom Caucus. Read more.

Humboldt County, California, United States, August 25 – During an anti-vaccine mandate protest, yellow Stars of David with the word “Unvaccinated” were being circulated among the crowd. Read more.

University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain, August 24 – A literature course that compared Gaza to Auschwitz was canceled. Read more.

Springfield, Missouri, United States, August 24 – At a city council meeting, a number of constituents arrived wearing yellow Stars of David to protest a resolution that encouraged vaccines, comparing them to the Holocaust. Read more.

Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, August 23 – During an anti-lockdown rally, stickers with antisemitic statements and images were placed across Melbourne. Read more.

Bethel Park, Pennsylvania, United States, August 23 – Attendees at a school board meeting, set to vote on whether masks would be required of children during school, compared the board president and her staff to Nazis. Read more.

Cobb County, Georgia, United States, August 22 – A county hospital employee was dismissed after she posted a video online comparing the hospital’s vaccine mandate for employees to the Holocaust. Read more.

Paris, France, August 21 – Anti-vaccination pass groups protesting against the government were circulating antisemitic slogans and symbols, with some protestors wearing the yellow Star of David. Read more.

London, England, United Kingdom, August 19 – An anti-vaccination protestor stated that wearing the yellow Star of David with the words “Not Vaccinated” paid tribute to Holocaust victims “because where we are heading is where the Jews went.” Read more.

Kansas City, Missouri, United States, August 19 – The city council extended the mask mandate and a woman in the meeting’s audience wore a yellow Star of David. Read more.

Houston, Texas, United States, August 19 – Houston High School Assistant Principal Janna Matykiewicz and teacher Tony Benzing made a comparison post between the yellow Star of David Jews were forced to wear under Nazi Germany and Covid-19 vaccine certificates on their personal social media accounts. Read more.

Cumberland, New South Wales, Australia, August 19 – Mayor of Cumberland Steve Christou shared an infographic on his social media in relation to the new lockdown restrictions, writing, “Welcome to Nazi Germany.” Read more.

Birmingham, Michigan, United States, August 19 – A man raised a Nazi salute and yelled “Heil Hitler,” with two people repeating the phrase behind him, during a school board meeting that was determining whether a mask mandate would be enacted for students. Read more.

Romans-sur-Isère, France, August 18 – A Star of David and “Qui?” appeared on a gas station pump. Read more.

The defaced gas pump in Romans-sur-Isère, France.


Vosges, France, August 17 – Antisemitic placards with swastikas drawn on them and signs declaring government officials as Nazis appeared at anti-vaccination pass protests. Read more.

Munich, Germany, August 17 – Posters blamed “Jewish Bolshevism” for the Covid-19 protective measures, including vaccines and masks. Read more.

London, England, United Kingdom, August 16 – Labour Party officials in Bassetlaw made multiple statements comparing the Conservative Party to Nazi Germany’s SS. Read more.

Clayton, Missouri, United States, August 16 – A local rabbi spoke out at a St. Louis County Council meeting against the use of Holocaust comparisons to mask mandates at past meetings. Read more.

Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 15 – Crowds protesting the vaccination passports had participants wearing yellow Stars of David, comparing their struggle against Covid-19 vaccines to the persecution of Jews under Nazi Germany. Read more.

New South Wales, Australia, August 13 – A leaflet that compared the state’s Covid-19 lockdown to 1942 Nazi Germany was dropped into a mailbox in the Sydney suburb of Neutral Bay. Read more.

Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States, August 13 – Protesters against vaccine mandates at healthcare facilities compared the measures to the rounding up and deportation of Jews during the Holocaust. Read more.

France, August 13 – Vaccination centers across the country reported vandalizations that included images of swastikas, Stars of David, and provocative language. Read more.

Vilnius, Lithuania, August 11 – Protesters outside the Lithuanian Parliament wore symbols associated with the Holocaust, namely yellow Stars of David, to compare pandemic restrictions to the persecution of Jews during WWII. Read more.

Tallinn, Estonia, August 10 – Antisemitic graffiti, depicting a pig wearing a shtreimel and payot next to a Star of David, was spray-painted on a sign announcing the location of a vaccination center. Read more.

Fox Chapel, Pennsylvania, United States, August 10 – During a school board meeting, an attendee raised a Nazi salute after the board voted in favor of mandatory masking for school children. Read more.

New York, New York, United States, August 5 – A pending decision to require vaccination passes to public places prompted anti-vaccine protesters to compare vaccine passes to Nazi Germany’s persecution of Jews. Flyers featuring antisemitic slogans and Stars of David, with the words “Not Vaccinated,” appeared on Manhattan’s Upper East Side. Read more.

Verona, Italy, August 2 – Protesters at anti-vaccine rallies wore yellow Stars of David, comparing vaccine passes to the antisemitic measures Nazi Germany implemented during the Holocaust. Read more.

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States, July 31 – The Oklahoma Republican Party posted on Facebook a comparison between Covid-19 vaccine mandates and Nazi oppression of Jews during WWII, including a yellow Star of David with the word, “Unvaccinated.” Read more.

Loudon County, Virginia, United States, July 30 – District school teacher Julie Perry compared her treatment by colleagues and parents due to her conservative political ideology to that of the persecution of Jews by Nazi Germany during the 1930s. Read more.

Lefkada, Greece, July 30 – Anti-vaccination graffiti, using apparent and coarse antisemitic language, appeared on a main road connecting the island’s two main villages. Read more.

Southbury, Connecticut, July 28 – A sign designed with swastikas compared the Democratic Party to Nazis. Both Republican and Democrat Party leaders in Connecticut denounced the banner and antisemitism. Read more.

Rotterdam, Netherlands, July 27 – After signing with a rival club in Amsterdam, fans of top Dutch soccer player Steven Berghuis’ previous team in Rotterdam painted an antisemitic mural with the words: “Jews always run away.” Read more.

The antisemitic mural in Rotterdam, Netherlands, targeting Ajax winger Steven Berghuis. Photo: Courtesy of CIDI.


Munich, Germany, July 27 – The Munich Public Prosecutor’s Office decided to investigate a case involving the comparison of  Covid-19 vaccinations with Nazi policies, with a man posting a drawing of the infamous Auschwitz gate with the words “Vaccination Makes You Free” on his Facebook page. Read more.

London, England, United Kingdom, July 27 – Labour Party leader Sir Keir Starmer banned “hard-left” groups, and critics of this decision have called him a “Zionazi” who had loyalties with “foreign countries.” An initiative called “Defend the Left” launched a petition against Starmer and the ban. Read more.

Paris, France, July 19 – French Holocaust survivor Joseph Szwarc, supported by government officials and anti-racism activists, condemned the anti-vaccination movement’s comparisons of Nazi policies (namely the enforcement of Jews wearing a yellow stars) and Covid-19 vaccines. Read more.

London, England, United Kingdom, July 16 – Scottish National Party MP Peter Grant compared the UK government to the Nazi party under Hitler, implying that the true horrors of fascism had appeared after a few years in power in the UK as it did in Nazi Germany. Read more.

Washington, DC, United States, July 12 – Congresswoman Lauren Boebert compared vaccination campaigns and measures to Nazi Germany multiple times, leading the Auschwitz Memorial in Poland to condemn her statements. Read more.

Washington, DC, United States, July 8 – Congresswoman Marjorie Taylor Greene continued to compare COVID-19 vaccination campaigns to Nazi Germany, despite her visit to US Holocaust Memorial Museum and previous apology for such comparisons. Read more.

Berlin, Germany, July 8 – Antisemitic posters accusing Israel of appropriating the Holocaust for its benefit and implying that Jews were responsible for the Holocaust appeared in Berlin. Read more.

London, United Kingdom, July 6 – A member of the Hornsey and Wood Green local party made claims that Jews “had not learned from the Holocaust” during a conversation about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Read more.

Berlin, Germany, June 25 – Jordanian Professor Ahmad Nofal diminished Jewish suffering during the Holocaust and equated Israeli-Palestinian conflict to the Holocaust, saying that “if they really suffered then they wouldn’t have replicated this tragedy to the Palestinians…who suffer a daily Holocaust for 70 years.” Read more.